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<p>Mark Pestana, who submitted this item to Protoball, observes, "Polo?  Croquet? Golf? Rounders?  I think it's interesting that the spot of the ball is marked at the end of the first day."</p> <p>See Mark's full coverage in the Supplemental Text, below.</p>  +
<p>See also chronology entry [[1788.3]] for a later translation that uses "baste ball" instead of stool-ball as the game played by the women.</p> <p>Non-written depictions of ball play also exist in various ancient art forms.</p> <p>Some writers see the <em>Odyssey</em> verse as describing a game resembling dodgeball.</p> <p> </p>  +
<p>Henderson doesn't exactly endorse the idea that the cited game, "bittle-battle," is a ball game [or if it is, could it be a form of soule?] He says that one [unnamed] author claims that bittle-battle is a form of stoolball. I saw only two Henderson refs to stoolball, ref 72 [Grantham] and ref 149 [London Magazine]. One of them may be Henderson's source for the 1086 stoolball claim. I don't see a Henderson ref to the Domesday text itself, but then, it probably isn't found at local lending libraries.</p> <p>The <span style="text-decoration: underline;">Dictionary of the Sussex Dialect</span> [1875] reportedly gives "bittle-battle" as another name for stoolball. It is believed that "bittle" meant a wooden milk bowl and some have speculated that a bowl may have been used as a paddle to deflect a thrown ball from the target stool, while others speculate that the bowl may have been the target itself.</p>  +
<p><strong>Note: </strong>This drawing is listed as "contemporary" on the premise that it was meant to depict ballplaying in the 1400s.</p>  +
<p><strong>Note:</strong> We need better sources for the Columbus story.</p>  +
<p>The Wotton account was written by John Smyth of Nibley (1567-1640) in his <em>Berkeley</em> <em>Manuscripts</em> [Sir John McLean, ed., Gloucester, Printed by John Bellows, 1883]. Smyth's association with Berkeley Castle began in 1589, and the Manuscripts were written in about 1618, so it is not a first-hand report.</p>  +
<p>We are not certain that "palm play" could have been a baserunning game.  It may be an Anglicized form of <em>jeu de paume,</em> a likely French antecedent to tennis.</p> <p>The reference to "large grene courtes" in the full ball-play stanza suggests a tennis or handball-type pastime.</p> <p> </p>  +
<p>Sir Philip Sydney (1554-1586) died at age 31 in 1586.</p> <p>As of October 2012, this early stoolball ref. is the only one I see that can be interpreted as describing baserunning in stoolball - but it still may merely describe running by a fielder, not a batter. (LMc, Oct/2012)</p> <p>Sydney's mother was the sister of Robert Dudley, noted in item #[[1500s.2]] above as a possible stoolball player in the time of Eliizabeth I.</p>  +
<p>Per Maigaard's 1941 survey of "battingball games" includes a Polish variant of long ball, but does not mention pilka palantowa by name. However, pilka palantowa may merely be a longer/older term for <em>palant</em>, the Polish form of long ball still played today.</p> <p>The likelihood that pilka palantowa left any legacy in America is fairly low, since the Polish glassblowers returned home after a year and there is no subsequent mention of any similar game in colonial Virginia</p>  +
<p>Bradford explained that the issue was not that ball-playing was sinful, but that playing openly while others worked was not good for morale.</p> <p><strong>Note:</strong> From scrutinizing early reports of stoolball, Protoball does not find convincing evidence that it was a base-running game by the 1600s.</p>  +
<p>Sherston, England is in the southwest of England, near the Cotswolds and about 20 miles NE of Bristol England.</p>  +
<p>Singleton notes on p. ix that "Shrovetide was the Saturnalia of the lower classes," citing "joyous pastimes as all kinds of racing, and ball-playing in the streets. . ."  On p. 202 she cites a stern 1667 ordinance discouraging Sunday play of "ball playing, rolling nine-pins or bowls, etc." On p. 302 she cites a January 1656 proclamation forbidding "all labour, tennis-playing, ball-playing," among other activities.  Protoball does not see a ref to cricket in these sections.</p>  +
<p>(Jacobs) says that unfortunately "balslaen" has been translated as cricket but it simply means hitting the ball.</p>  +
<p>David further asks: "could it be that this is the source of the term putting "English" on a ball?"</p>  +
<p>Writing of Bunyan in 1885, Washington Gladden revealed that as a youth, "[t]he four chief sins of which he was guilty were dancing, ringing the bells of the parish church, playing at tip-cat, and reading the history of Sir Bevis of Southampton." Letter to the Editor, <span style="text-decoration: underline;">The Century Magazine</span>, Volume 30 (May-October 1885), page 334. <strong><br/></strong></p>  +
<p>John Bunyan (1628-1688) was a Baptist preacher and author of <span style="text-decoration: underline;">The Pilgrim's Progress</span> (1678 and 1684).</p>  +
<p><strong>Note:</strong> This book is in the form of a chronology. Barber gives no source for the wicket report.</p>  +
<p>For more on cat-and-dog, see</p>  +
<p>Trap ball is not believed to be a baserunning game.</p>  +
<p>Scarborough Maine is about 8 miles SW of Portland ME (then still a part of Massachusetts).</p>  +